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Chemistry Syllabus

This syllabus can be also called as Universal Chemistry Syllabus, where we are covering almost all topics, which will be very helpful to you for crack any Competitive exams of the world.
Exams Like Civil services, Federal services, IIT JEE, ACT, SAT, GMAT, GRE, ASVAB, UPSC, SSC, Science, Chemistry Olympiad, CAT, Railways etc..

 

CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS

Physical Chemistry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

General Topics – Concept of atoms & molecules
– Dalton’s atomic theory
– Mole concept
– Chemical formulae
– Balanced chemical equations
– Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidation-reduction, neutralization, and displacement reactions;
– Concentration in terms of mole fraction, morality and normality.
Gaseous, Liquid, and Solid States – Gases
– Kinetic molecular theory of gases, average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature
– Gas law relationships, molar volumes, density, and stoichiometry
– Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation
– Deviation from ideality, van der Waals equation
– Law of partial pressures
– Vapour pressure
– Diffusion of gases– Liquids and Solids
– Intermolecular forces in liquids & solids
– Types of solids
– Phase changes
– Phase diagrams

– Solutions
– Molarity and percent by mass concentrations, solution preparation and stoichiometry
– Factors affecting solubility of solids, liquids, and gases
– Qualitative aspects of colligative properties

Atomic Structure And Chemical Bonding – Atomic Structure, including experimental evidence of atomic structure
– Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers and energy levels (orbitals)
– Electron configurations
– Periodic trends
– Wave-particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis
– Uncertainty principle
– Qualitative quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom, shapes of s, p and d orbital’s
– Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36)
– Aufbau principle
– Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule
– Orbital overlap and covalent bond
– Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbital’s only
– Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species
– Bonding, including ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds, relationships of bonding to properties and structures
– Intermolecular forces such as Hydrogen bonding
– Dipole-dipole forces
– Dispersion (London) forces
– Molecular Structure, including Lewis structures
– Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) model and shapes of molecules (3D molecular shapes) such as Linear, angular, square planar, triangular, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, octahedral and tetrahedral.  
– Polarity, Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only)
Energetics (ThermoChemistry) – Conservation of energy
– Calorimetry & specific heats
– Enthalpy (heat) changes associated with phase changes and chemical reactions
– Heating & cooling curves
– Entropy
– First law of thermodynamics
– Internal energy, work & heat, pressure-volume work
– Enthalpy, Hess’s law
– Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization
– Second law of thermodynamics
– Entropy
– Free energy
– Criterion of spontaneity
Chemical Equilibrium (chemical reaction) – Equilibrium Systems
– Law of mass action
– Equilibrium constant
– Equilibrium expressions
– Le Chatelier’s principle (factors (concentration, temperature, & pressure) affecting the position of equilibrium in gaseous and aqueous systems )
– Significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibrium
– Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions– Rates of Reactions
– Factors affecting reaction rates
– Potential energy diagrams
– Activation energies

– Acids and bases
– Brønsted-Lowry acid–base theory
– Lewis concepts (Lewis acid–base theory)
– Strong and weak acids & bases
– pH (pouvoir hydrogen / power of hydrogen)
– Titrations
– Indicators
– Hydrolysis of salts

– Oxidation – Reduction (Redox)
– Recognition of oxidation-reduction reactions
– Combustion
– Oxidation numbers
– Use of Activity series

– Precipitation
– Basic solubility rules

Stoichiometry – Mole Concept
– Molar mass
– Avogadro’s number
– Empirical and molecular formulas– Chemical Equations
– The balancing of equations
– Stoichiometric calculations
– Percent yield
– Limiting reactants
Electrochemistry – Electrochemical cells and cell reactions
– Standard electrode potentials
– Nernst equation and its relation to DG
– Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells
– Faraday’s laws of electrolysis
– Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s law
– Concentration cells
Chemical Kinetics – Rates of chemical reactions
– Order of reactions
– Rate constant
– First order reactions
– Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation)
Solid State – Classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, alpha, beta, gamma), close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in BCC, FCC, and HCP lattices
– Nearest neighbours, ionic radii
Solutions – Raoult’s law
– Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point
Surface chemistry – Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms)
– Colloids: types, methods of preparation and general properties
– Elementary ideas of emulsions, surfactants and micelles (only definitions and examples)
Nuclear chemistry – Radioactivity: isotopes & isobars
– Properties of alpha, beta and gamma rays
– Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating
– Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio
– Brief discussion on fission & fusion reactions
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Inorganic Chemistry

 

 

 

 

 

Isolation/Preparation And Properties Of The Following Non-Metals – Boron, nitrogen, silicon, phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur and halogens
– Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite), phosphorus and sulphur
Preparation and properties of the following compounds – Oxides, hydroxides, peroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium
– Boron: diborane, boric acid and borax
– Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums
– Carbon: oxides & oxyacid (carbonic acid)
– Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide
– Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia
– Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and phosphin
– Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide
– Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate
– Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides & oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder
– Xenon fluorides.
Transition elements (3d series) – Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment
– Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, cis-trans & ionisation isomerisms, hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear, square planar, tetrahedral, and octahedral)
Preparation and Properties of the following compounds – Oxides and chlorides of tin and lead
– Oxides, chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+
– Potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, silver nitrate, silver oxide, silver thiosulphate, Ores and minerals: Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron, copper, lead, tin, aluminum, magnesium, znc and silver.
Extractive metallurgy – Chemical principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded)
– Carbon reduction method (iron and tin)
– Self reduction method (copper and lead)
– Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminum)
– Cyanide process (silver and gold)
Descriptive chemistry – Common elements
– Nomenclature of ions and compounds,
– Periodic trends in chemical and physical properties of the elements,
– Reactivity of elements and prediction of products of chemical reactions,
– Examples of simple organic compounds and compounds of environmental concern
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Organic Chemistry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Concepts – Hybridization of carbon
– Sigma and pi-bonds
– Shapes of simple organic molecules
– Structural and geometrical isomerism
– Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centres, (R,S and E,Z nomenclature excluded)
– IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons, mono-functional and bi-functional compounds)
– Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections)
– Resonance and hyperconjugation
– Keto-enol tautomerism
– Determination of empirical and molecular formulae of simple compounds (only combustion method)
– Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids
– Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases
– Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides
– Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage
– Formation, structure and stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals
Preparation, properties and reactions of Alkenes – Homologous series, physical properties of alkanes (melting points, boiling points and density)
– Combustion and halogenation of alkanes
– Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions
Preparation, properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes – Physical properties of alkenes and alkynes (boiling points, density and dipole moments)
– Acidity of alkynes
– Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination)
– Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone
– Reduction of alkenes and alkynes
– Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions
– Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2, HX, HOX and H2O (X=halogen)
– Addition reactions of alkynes
– Metal acetylides
Reactions of benzene: Structure and aromaticity; (Electrophilic substitution reactions) – Halogenation, sulphonation, nitration, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation
– Effect of o-, m- and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes
Phenols – Acidity, electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration and sulphonation)
– Reimer-Tieman reaction, Kolbe reaction
Characteristic reactions of the following (including those mentioned above) – Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation, Grignard reactions, nucleophilic substitution reactions
– Alcohols: esterification, reaction with sodium, dehydration and oxidation, phosphorus halides, ZnCl2/concentrated HCl, conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones
– Ethers: Preparation by Williamson’s Synthesis
– Aldehydes and Ketones: reduction, oxidation, oxime and hydrazone formation
– Aldol condensation, Perkin reaction
– Cannizzaro reaction
– Haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition)
– Carboxylic acids: formation of esters, acid chlorides and amides, ester hydrolysis
– Amines: basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines, reaction with nitrous acid, preparation from nitro compounds, azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines, Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts
– Carbylamine reaction
– Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes (excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution)
Carbohydrates – Classification
– Mono- and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose)
– Oxidation, reduction, glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose
– Amino acids and peptides: General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties
– Properties and uses of some important polymers: Natural rubber, nylon, cellulose, teflon and PVC (Polyvinyl chloride)
Practical organic chemistry – Detection of elements (N, S, halogens)
– Detection and identification of the following functional groups: carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carboxyl, amino and nitro
– Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures
Laboratory – Knowledge of laboratory equipment
– Measurements
– Procedures
– Observations
– Safety
– Calculations
– Data analysis
– Interpretation of graphical data
– Drawing conclusions from observations and data

 

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