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# Physics Syllabus

This syllabus can be also called as Universal Physics Syllabus, where we are covering almost all topics, which will be very helpful to you for crack any Competitive exams of the world.

PHYSICS SYLLABUS

CONTENT INDEX

## General Physics and Measurements

– Units and dimensions, dimensional analysis
– Last count, significant figures
Methods of measurement and error analysis for physical quantities pertaining to the following experiments: – Experiments based on using Vernier calipers & micrometer (screw gauge),
– Determination of g using simple pendulum,
– Young’s modulus by Searle’s method,
– Specific heat of a liquid using calorimeter,
– Focal length of a concave mirror & a convex lens using u-v method,
– Speed of sound using resonance column,
– Verification of Ohm’s Law using voltmeter and ammeter
– Specific resistance of the material of a wire using meter bridge and post office box.

## Mechanics – I

Kinematics – Velocity
– Acceleration
– Motion in one and two dimensions (Cartesian coordinates only)
– Motion of projectiles
Dynamics – Newton’s Laws of motion
– Inertial and uniformly accelerated frames of reference
– Force
– Static and dynamic friction
Circular motion – Uniform Circular motion
– Centripetal force
Energy and Momentum – Kinetic and Potential energy
– Work and Power
– Conservation of linear momentum and mechanical energy.
– Systems of particles
– Centre of mass and its motion
– Impulse
– Elastic and inelastic collisions.
Gravity: – Law of gravitation;
– Gravitational potential and field
– Acceleration due to gravity
– Motion of planets and satellites in circular orbits
– Escape velocity
– Kepler’s Laws

## Mechanics – II

– Rigid body
– Moment of inertia
– Parallel and perpendicular axes theorems
– Moment of inertia of uniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes
– Angular momentum
– Torque
– Conservation of angular momentum
– Dynamics of rigid bodies with fixed axis of rotation
– Rolling without slipping of rings, cylinders and spheres
– Equilibrium of rigid bodies
– Collision of point masses with rigid bodies
– Linear and angular simple harmonic motions (mass on a spring and the pendulum)
– Hooke’s Law
– Young’s modulus
Fluid Mechanics – Pressure in a fluid
– Pascal’s law
– Buoyancy
– Surface energy and surface tension, capillary rise
– Viscosity (Poiseuille’s equation excluded), Stoke’s Law
– Terminal velocity
– Streamline flow
– Equation of continuity
– Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
Oscillations and Waves – Wave motion (plane waves only),
– Longitudinal and transverse waves,
– Superposition of waves;
– Progressive and stationary waves;
– Vibration of strings and air columns;
– Resonance;
– Beats;
– Speed of sound in gases;
– Doppler effect (in sound)

## Thermal Physics

Thermodynamics – Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases
– Kinetic theory of gases
– Thermodynamic property (Temperature, specific and latent heat, entropy, thermal expensions etc..)
– Calorimetry
– Newton’s law of cooling
– Ideal gas laws
– Specific heats (Cv and Cp for monoatomic and diatomic gases)
– Isothermal and adiabatic processes, bulk modulus of gases
– Equivalence of heat and work
Laws of Thermodynamics – First & second law of thermodynamics and its applications (only for ideal gases)
– Absorptive and emissive powers
– Kirchhoff’s law
– Wien’s displacement law
– Stefan’s law
Heat transfer – Heat conduction in one dimension
– Elementary concepts of convection and radiation

## Electricity and Magnetism

Electric field, forces, and potential – Coulomb’s law;
– Electrical potential energy of a system of point charges and of electrical dipoles in a uniform electrostatic field;
– Electric field lines;
– Flux of electric field;
– Gauss’s law and its application in simple cases, such as, to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell.
Capacitance – Parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectrics;
– Time-varying behavior in charging/ discharging
– Capacitors in series and parallel;
– Energy stored in a capacitor.
Circuit elements and DC circuits – Electric current;
– Ohm’s law;
– Joule’s law
– Light bulbs
– Resistors
– Series and parallel arrangements of resistances and cells;
– Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications;
– Heating effect of current.
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism – Biot–Savart’s law and Ampere’s law;
– Permanent magnets
– Particles in magnetic fields
– Magnetic field near a current-carrying straight wire, along the axis of a circular coil and inside a long straight solenoid;
– Force on a moving charge and on a current-carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field.
– Magnetic moment of a current loop
– Effect of a uniform magnetic field on a current loop
– Moving coil galvanometer, voltmeter, ammeter and their conversions.
– Lenz’s law,
– Self and mutual inductance,
– RC, LR and LC circuits with d.c. and a.c. sources.

## Waves and Optics

General wave properties – Wave speed
– Frequency
– Wavelength
– Superposition,
– Standing wave diffraction
– Doppler effect
Reflection and refraction – Reflection and refraction at plane and spherical surfaces
– Snell’s Law
– Change in wavelength and speed
– Huygen’s principle
Ray optics – Image formation using pinholes, mirros, and Lenses.
Physical optics – Single-slit diffraction
– Double-slit Interference
– Interference limited to Young’s double-slit experiment
– Polarization, and color
– Rectilinear propagation of light
– Total internal reflection
– Deviation and dispersion of light by a prism
– Thin lenses
– Combinations of mirrors and thin lenses
– Magnification

## Modern Physics

Quantum Phenomena: – Photons
– Photoelectric effect
Atomic – Rutherford and Bohr models,
– Atomic energy levels,
– Atomic spectra,
– Atomic nucleus,
– Alpha, beta and gamma radiations,
– Decay constant,
– Half-life and mean life,
– Binding energy and its calculation,
– Fission and fusion processes,
– Energy calculation in these processes,
– Photoelectric effect,
– Bohr’s theory of hydrogen-like atoms,
– Characteristic and continuous X-rays, Moseley’s Law,
– De Broglie wavelength of matter waves.
Nuclear and particle physics – Radioactivity
– Nuclear reactions
– Fundamental Particles
Relativity – Time dilation
– Length contraction
– Mass-energy equivalence

## Miscellaneous

General – History of physics
– General questions that overlap several major topics
Analytical skills – Graphical analysis
– Measurement
– Math skills
Contemporary Physics – Astrophysics
– Superconductivity
– Chaos theory

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