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Xenon Xe (Element 54) of Periodic Table

Xenon Xe (Element 54) of Periodic Table

54 Xe (Xenon)
It is a rare, colourless, tasteless and chemically unreactive gas.
A Xenon In a vaccume tube (gas filled tube), produce blue glow light when excited by electrical discharge.
A Xenon is available in sealed glass containers of gas at standard pressure.

Xenon headlight

Xenon Car Headlight

xenon ion propulsion system (XIPS)

Xenon Ion Propulsion System (XIPS)

 
Identity
CAS Number: CAS7440-6-3
CID Number:  CID23991
DOT Hazard Class:  2.2
DOT Number:  2591
RTECS Number:  RTECSZE1280000

Basic Properties of Xenon

Pronunciation:  Zee-non
Appearance:  Colourless gas
Mass Number:  131
Standard Atomic weight: 131.293  g/mol
Atomic number (Z):  54
Electrons: 54
Protons:  54
Neutrons:  77
Group:  18
Period:  5
Block:  p
Element category:  Noble gases
Electrons per shell:  K2, L8, M18, N18, O8
Electron configuration:  1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p6

Xenon electron configuration

Xenon Electron Configuration

Thermal Properties of Xenon

Phase:  Gas (monoatomic)
Melting point:  161.40 K (-111.75 oC, -169.15 oF)
Boiling point:   165.051 K (-108.099 oC, -162.578 oF)
Triple Point Temperature:  161.405 K (-111.745 oC, -169.141 oF)
Triple point Pressure:  81.77 kPa (0.807 Atm)
Critical Temperature:  289.733 K (16.583 oC, 61.8494 oF)
Critical Pressure:  5.842 MPa (57.65 Atm)
Fusion heat:  2.27 kJ/mol
Vaporization heat:  12.64 kJ/mol
Specific Heat:  158.32 J/(kg K)
Adiabatic Index:  5/3
Molar heat capacity:  21.01 J/(mol.K)
Thermal conductivity:  5.65×10-3 W/(m∙K)

Magnetic Properties of Xenon

A Magnetic type:  Diamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (xmol):  -43.9×10-6 cm3/mol
Volume magnetic susceptibility:  -0.254×10-9
Mass magnetic susceptibility:  -4.3×10-9 m3/kg
Molar magnetic susceptibility:  -0.565×10-9 m3/mol

Physical Properties of Xenon

Density:  5.894 g/L (In Gas)  2.942 g/cm3 (In Liquid At  B.P)
Molar volume:  0.022 m3/mol
Refractive index:  1.000702
Sound Speed:  178 m/s (In Gas), 1090 m/s (In Liquid)

Atomic Properties of Xenon 

Oxidation states:  0, +1, +2, +4, +6, +8 (rarely more than 0)
Valence Electrons:  5s2 5p2
Ionization potential of an atom:  12.08
Ionization energies:  1st: 1170.4 kJ.mol 2nd: 2046.4 kJ/mol 3rd: 3099.4 kJ/mol
Atomic radius:  216 pm (Van der Waals)
Covalent radius:  140±9 pm
Filling Orbital:  5p6
Crystal structure:  Face-centered cubic
Lattice angles:  π/2, π/2, π/2
Lattice constant:  620.23, 620.23, 620.23 pm
Grid parameters:  6.200 Å
Space Group Name:  Fm_3m
Space Group Number:  225

Face Centered Cubic

Face Centered Cubic (FCC)

Reactivity of Xenon

Electronegativity:  pauling scale: 2.6
Valence:  +6
Electron affinity:  0 kJ/mol

Nuclear Properties of Xenon

Half Life:  Stable (Infinity)
Lifetime:  Stable (Infinity)
Quantum Number:  1S0
Neutron cross section (Brans):  25
Neutron Mass Absorption:  0.0083
Isotopes:  124Xe 125Xe 126Xe 127Xe 128Xe 129Xe 130Xe 131Xe 132Xe 133Xe 134Xe 135Xe 136Xe
 

Isotope Abundance (%) Atomic Mass g/mol Half Life (t1/2)
124Xe 0.095 123.906 Stable
125Xe Syn 16.9 h
126Xe 0.089 125.904 Stable
127Xe Syn 36.345 d
128Xe 1.910 127.904 Stable
129Xe 26.401 128.905 Stable
130Xe 4.071 129.904 Stable
131Xe 21.232 130.905 Stable
132Xe 26.909 131.904 Stable
133Xe Syn 5.247 d
134Xe 10.436 -133.905 Stable
135Xe Syn 9.14 h
136Xe 8.857 135.907 2.165×1021 y

Xenon History

Naming:  Greek: xenos (stranger)
Discovery:  William Ramsay and Morris Travers (At University College London)
First isolation:  Travers (1898)

Xenon Uses

Xenon is used in electron tubes, photographic flash lamps, stroboscopic lamps and bactericidal lamps used in food preparation and processing, High-pressure arc lamps to product UV light (solar simulators) and high-intensity arc-lamps (Projection lamps) for motion picture projection.
It is also used in lamps used to excite ruby lasers that generate coherent light.
Other uses are as a Xenon ‘blue’ fog lights and head lights in some vehicles.
Used in Medical as a General anesthetic or General anesthesia (A machine that can deliver xenon), in Sports Doping (Xenon inhalaled  athletes has been failed in sports Doping test) and Neuroprotectant.
 
It is used in the nuclear energy studies(atomic energy field) in bubble chambers, probes, and other applications where a high molecular weight and inert chemistry is desirable.
 
The perxenates (Salts of the yellow xenon-containing anion XeO64-) are used in analytical chemistry as oxidizing agents.
 
Xenon ion propulsion system (XIPS) are used by several satellites to keep them in orbit, and in some other spacecraft, Because it is easily ionized and generating a desirable level of thrust when ions are accelerated.
 
Xenon difluoride (XeF2) is used to etch silicon microprocessors.
It is also used in the manufacture of 5-fluorouracil (C4H3FN2O2), a drug used to treat certain types of cancer.
 
Biological role:  It is not toxic, but its compounds are highly toxic and explosive because they are strong oxidizing agents.

Abundance of Xenon 

Xenon is present in the atmosphere, with only 0.086 parts per million by volume.
It can also be found in some gases that created through mineral springs.
 
It is Obtain in small quantities by separation  from liquified air (Air cooled to very low temperatures, So It condensed into pale blue liquid),
 
133Xe and 135Xe are radioactive Isotopes that created through neutron irradiation of fissionable material in nuclear reactors.
More than 80 xenon compounds have been made with xenon chemically bonded to fluorine and oxygen.
 
Annual world wide production is around 0.6 tons.
1×10-6% (In Universe)
2×10-9% (In Earth’s Crust)
5×10-10% (In Oceans)

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