Top 10 Most Deadly Poisons Of The World
Explanation of Most Deadly Poisons
11 RICIN POISON
It is a natural occurring poison that is extracted from Castor oil seeds. Taking small amount of the seeds is not harmful but a high amount of ricin causes death. It can get into human’s body by Inhalation, Ingestion or Injection. Once it gets into the body it blocks the ability of making protein by preventing cells from assembling the amino acids. Hence the body goes into shock and the person dies.
Ricin Poison Facts:
1. If someone eats a single original castor seed then there is not a big effect of it in the body because there is a very less toxin in a single seed but the effect of the poison may cause Nausea, Diarrhea or Hypertension.
2. These castor plants are mostly grown in Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa and India.
3. There is no cure of ricin poisoning if no one is aware of its symptoms. If the symptoms are suspected by the doctor at right time then it may be cured.
10 AMATOXIN POISON
This poison is found naturally in certain species of Mushrooms. One can ingest, inhale or absorb it from the mushrooms. If the poison reaches into the body, it will attack the kidney and the liver first. After few days person will go into coma which is often times non-reversible and causes death. Symptoms are Coughing, Insomnia, Shortness of Breath, Headache and Dizziness.
Amatoxin Poison Facts:
1. There is no antidote for this poison. We cannot say whether a particular mushroom is poisonous or not. Once it enters into the body it totally destroys our liver within seven days period which causes a horrific death.
2. Amanita Phalloids, Amanita virosa, Galerina autumnalis are some of the poisonous mushrooms which contains amatoxin.
3. The estimated minimum dose is 0.1mg/kg or 7mg of toxin in human. It may take 12 to 24 hours to cause death of human.
09 SARIN POISON
This Sarin is a very dangerous and deadly Nerve gas. It is commonly used as a chemical weapon for mass destruction that can kill in 1 to 10minutes even when released in very low concentration. The initial symptoms of this gas are Tightness in the Chest and Runny Nose, very soon you will not able to breath. The death can be caused within 60 seconds. It was manufactured before the Second World War in Germany and later the German Army produced it as a weapon.
Sarin Poison Facts:
1. Chemical formula of Sarin is [(CH₃)₂CHO]CH₃P(O)F] and IUPAC name 2-[fluoro (methyl) phosphoryl] oxypropane and molecular formula is C4H10FO2P with weight of 140.09g/mol.
2. It is a colorless and odorless liquid.
3. Just 2.5 g of sarin is enough to kill about 1000 people.
08 CYANIDE POISON
Most people are familiar with cyanide poison. It is harmful to the heart as well as to the central nervous system. Cyanide when enters into the body, binds itself to the Iron Element present in the blood which stops the flow of oxygen in the body. This causes death in no time. It is found in the Seeds of Apple, Cherries, Almonds and Apricots. Hydrogen cyanide is the most dangerous one. It is used in gaseous form as a tool of chemical warfare. Since World War 1, it has often been used for murder and suicide.
Cyanide Poison Facts:
1. It has a chemical formula of –CN.
2. In industries people make cyanide by using Ammonia (NH3) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) at 500degree Celsius with thorium dioxide as a catalyst.
NH3 + CO → HCN + H2O
The product –HCN here is Hydrogen Cyanide and is in gaseous form, when it is dissolved in water it becomes highly toxic HCN liquid.
3. Taste of Cyanide is just like Bitter Almond.
07 STRYCHNINE POISON
This poison is an odorless white powder like substance which is extracted from some Trees. It is often found in laboratories. This poison can be given orally or Inhaled. When it gets entered in the body our muscles will start contracting and the victim faces nausea and vomiting. Death can occur within half an hour. This is why masks are very important when one enters an unfamiliar laboratory.
Strychnine Poison Facts:
1. It is generally extracted from the seeds of the Strychnos nux-vomica tree.
2. Its chemical formula is C21H22N2O2.
3. It is very toxic to humans, minimum oral dose in adults is 30-120mg, 2mg/kg in mice.
4. High dose of this poison causes death of human in 15 to 30 minutes only.
06 MERCURY POISON
Mercury, a heavy metal is very toxic to the human body when Touched or Inhaled. It directly attacks the nervous system and the lungs. It causes memory loss, loss of vision, kidney failure and Brain damage which causes death. Even a small drop of mercury on the human hand can be very dangerous.
Mercury Poison Facts:
1. Methyl Mercury (CH3Hg+) is the most deadly form of Mercury.
2. Antidotes for mercury poisoning are DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid, C4H6O4S2) and DMPS (2, 3-dimercapto 1-propanessulfonic acid). It is known as Chelation therapy and this heavy metal can be removed from our body using this.
05 TETRODOTOXIN POISON
It is abbreviated as TTX and found in Puffer fish. The puffer fish is used to prepare sushi. It is usually transmitted to the body if one is stung or steps on a puffer fish. Puffer fish emits this for its safety. When someone comes in contact with this substance, problem in swallowing starts occurring and the person may get Paralyzed. This then worsens to take breath and hence leads to death after some hours if not taken to the hospital.
Tetrodotoxin Poison Facts:
1. Its chemical formula is C11H17N3O8.
2. It is also found in some other aquatic animals like Blue-ringed Octopuses, Moon Snails, Ocean Sunfish.
3. No Antidote has been developed and approved for humans use so far, researches are still going on.
4. Death may occur within 4 to 6 hours after the intake of poison.
04 VX POISON
This VX is also known as dangerous Nerve gas. It was initially marketed as a pesticide but when the cases of the VX poison happened among farmers in maintaining their farms it got banned. If a single drop of this gas comes in contact with human it can cause death in few hours. It was banned as a pesticide but soon government of different countries started using it as a weapon for war.
VX Poison Facts:
1. Its chemical formula is C11H26NO2PS.
2. In its purest form VX is an oily, non-volatile, liquid that is amber-like in color.
3. Antidote for this is available- an injection of HI-6 and atropine.
4. Researchers estimated that 2.12 microgram/kg of VX is the maximum tolerable dosage given to a man after which one will die.
5. Kim Jong-Nam, half-brother of Kim Jong-Un was murdered by this VX poison.
03 BATRACHOTOXIN POISON – Arrow Poison Frog
The poison extracted by this Frog can kill even 20 dogs at a time and more than 10 people at a time. These tiny bright colored frogs have more than 125 species near Central and South America. This frog is very small in size like a tip of our thumb. Poison found in the frog is of two types either a Cardio toxin, means it can stop the working of our heart causing sudden death or a Neurotoxin.
Batrachotoxin Poison Facts:
1. Its chemical formula is C31H42N2O6.
2. It is also found in some species of Beetles, Birds etc. The poisoning frogs are used as Darts for hunting purposes.
3. No effective Antidote is known so far.
4. The toxin is released through colorless or milky secretions from the glands which is behind the ear of frogs from the genus Phyllobates.
02 BOTULINUM TOXIN POISON
It is the deadliest poison known to humanity. One teaspoon of botulinum toxin is enough to kill more than 1 billion humans. This is the reason it is very popular in war weapons. The toxin is produced by a bacterium called Clostridium Botulin. Its poisonous form is botulism which can be found in food but can be killed by heating food over 100degree Celsius, still it is used in medical and cosmetics in the form of Botox.
Botulinum Toxin Facts:
1. Its Chemical formula is C6760H10447N1743O2010S32.
2. Minimum Dose which can cause death of human is 1.3 to 2.1ng/kg (into veins) or 10-13ng/kg (into muscles) when inhaled. An injection of only 2 ng (Nano gram) can cause death of an adult. (1 gram = 1X109 ng)
3. There are 8 types of Botulinum toxin from A – H. Type A & B are used in medicines and in industries. Type H is considered as the deadliest one.
01 POLONIUM POISON
It is amongst the deadliest poisons of the 21st century. It is a Radioactive element which has no use in biological science. It’s most common form is Polonium 210 which is 250,000 times more dangerous than Hydrogen cyanide. A gram of Polonium 210 can cause death of around 10 million people if Ingested, Injected or Inhaled. If the radiation is not able to kill you, you are likely to get cancer.
Polonium Poison Facts:
1. Polonium was discovered in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie when it was extracted from the Uranium ore.
2. One gram of P210 may spread poison to 20 million people of whom 10 million would die.
3. To decontaminate humans it is suggested that Chelation agents, such as British anti-lewisite (dimercaprol) can be used.
4. This polonium is also present in Tobacco smoke which causes lung cancer in humans.