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Californium Cf (Element 98) of Periodic Table

Californium Cf (Element 98) of Periodic Table

98 Cf (Californium)

Appearance – Silvery (Radioactive metal)

Mass number – 251

Atomic weight – 251.0796 g/mol

Atomic number (Z) – 98

Electrons: 98

Protons: 98

Neutrons: 153

Period – 7

Block – f

Element category – Actinide

Electrons per shell – K1, L8, M18, N32, O28, P8, Q2

Electron configuration – 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p64f145d106s26p65f107s2

Phase – Solid

Melting point – 1173 k (900 oC)

Boiling point – 1743 k (1470 oC)

Density – 15.1 g/cm3

Half Life(s): 284 x 108

Lifetime(s): 410 x 108

Decay mode – Alpha decay

Neutron cross section (Barns) – 2900

Oxidation states – 2, 3, 4

Electronegativity – Pauling scale; 1.3

Valence – 4

Ionization energies – 1st: 608 kJ/mol

Atomic radius – 295 pm

Crystal structure – Double hexagonal close-packed

Grid Parameters – a=3.38  c=11.3

Attitude c/c – 3.26

Mohs hardness: 3 – 4

CAS Number 7440-71-3

Naming – After California, where it was discovered

Discovery – Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (1950)

Isotopes – 248Cf 249Cf 250Cf 251Cf 252Cf 253Cf 254Cf

Uses – It is very strong neutron emitter. It is Used in Portable metal detectors, to identifying gold and silver ores, identify water and oil layers in oil wells and to detect metal fatigue and stress in aeroplanes.

Biological Role – It is toxic due to its radioactivity

Natural abundance – It is prepared, in milligram amounts only, by the neutron bombardment of plutonium-239

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